Essay on the russian revolution 1917
Lenin , the leader of the Bolshevik Party that seized control in the Revolution. As old Major outlines the principles of Animalism, a theory holding that all animals are equal and must revolt against their oppressors, Lenin was inspired by Karl Marx's theory of Communism, which urges the "workers of the world" to unite against their economic oppressors. As Animalism imagines a world where all animals share in the prosperity of the farm, Communism argues that a "communal" way of life will allow all people to live lives of economic equality.
Lenin was responsible for changing Russia into the U. The U. One of Lenin's allies was Leon Trotsky , another Marxist thinker who participated in a number of revolutionary demonstrations and uprisings. His counterpart in Animal Farm is Snowball, who, like Trotsky, felt that a worldwide series of rebellions was necessary to achieve the revolution's ultimate aims.
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Snowball's plans for the windmill and programs reflect Trotsky's intellectual character and ideas about the best ways to transform Marx's theories into practice. Trotsky was also the leader of Lenin's Red Army, as Snowball directs the army of animals that repel Jones. Eventually, Trotsky was exiled from the U.
Like Napoleon, Stalin was unconcerned with debates and ideas. Instead, he valued power for its own sake and by had assumed complete control of the Communist Party through acts of terror and brutality.
From Tsar to U.S.S.R.: Russia's Chaotic Year of Revolution
Napoleon's dogs are like Stalin's KGB, his secret police that he used to eliminate all opposition. As Napoleon gains control under the guise of improving the animals' lives, Stalin used a great deal of propaganda — symbolized by Squealer in the novel — to present himself as an idealist working for change. His plan to build the windmill reflects Stalin's Five Year Plan for revitalizing the nation's industry and agriculture. Stalin's ordering Lenin's body to be placed in the shrine-like Lenin's Tomb parallels Napoleon's unearthing of old Major's skull, and his creation of the Order of the Green Banner parallels Stalin's creation of the Order of Lenin.
Hunger, War, Rage
Thanks, in part, to animals like Boxer who swallow whole all of their leader's lies , Stalin became one of the world's most feared and brutal dictators. Numerous events in the novel are based on ones that occurred during Stalin's rule. Jones ; Frederick represents Adolf Hitler , who forged an alliance with Stalin in — but who then found himself fighting Stalin's army in Frederick seems like an ally of Napoleon's, but his forged banknotes reveal his true character. The October Revolution, organized by Vladimir Lenin exactly a century ago, is still relevant today in ways that would have seemed unimaginable when Soviet Communism collapsed.
The Russian Revolutions of 1917 Essay
Meanwhile, North Korea, a dystopian Leninist monarchy with nuclear weapons, terrifies the world. President Trump is some ways the personification of a new Bolshevism of the right where the ends justify the means and acceptable tactics include lies and smears, and the exploitation of what Lenin called useful idiots.
One hundred years later, as its events continue to reverberate and inspire, October looms epic, mythic, mesmerizing. Its effects were so enormous that it seems impossible that it might not have happened the way it did. There was nothing inevitable about the Bolshevik revolution. By , the Romanov monarchy was decaying quickly, but its emperors may have saved themselves had they not missed repeated chances to reform.
The other absolute monarchies of Europe — the Ottomans, the Habsburgs — fell because they were defeated in World War I.
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Would the Romanovs have fallen, too, if they had survived just one more year to share in the victory of November ? Back in Petrograd, Lenin, aided by fellow-radicals Trotsky and Stalin, had to overpower erring Bolshevik comrades, who proposed cooperation with the provisional government, and force them to agree to his plan for a coup. The government should have found and killed him but it failed to do so.
He succeeded. October might have heralded a short-lived interim, like so many other failed revolutions of that era. Any coordinated attack by White armies, the other side in the Russian civil war, or any intervention by Western forces would have swept the Bolsheviks away. It all depended on Lenin. He was very nearly overthrown in a coup by rebellious coalition partners but he made his own luck, though, by a combination of ideological passion, ruthless pragmatism, unchecked bloodletting and the will to establish a dictatorship.
February Revolution begins in Russia
And sometimes, he just got plain lucky: On Aug. He survived by inches. Had any of these events foiled Lenin, our own times would be radically different. Without Lenin there would have been no Hitler.
Hitler owed much of his rise to the support of conservative elites who feared a Bolshevik revolution on German soil and who believed that he alone could defeat Marxism. And the rest of his radical program was likewise justified by the threat of Leninist revolution.