Animal cloning essay conclusion
Unanimous responses to cloning are based on very legitimate concerns for instance with respect to relationships between human beings as well as between humans and nature. Cloning refers to the process of creating genetically similar organisms or the production of organisms that are genetically identical through the transfer of somatic cells of an existing organism and transferring it to an oocyte where the nucleus has been extracted.
Human cloning is particularly an ethical issue that has raised different views worldwide on whether to clone or not based on information gathered evidencing the advantages and disadvantages of cloning. Cloning duplicates the genes of the individual creating a genetic duplicate but not an exact copy.
Medically, there are benefits and demerits that accrue from cloning and its related technology. Additionally, there are several risks to cloning as evidenced by the numerous cloning attempts that have been unsuccessful. Dolly, the first cloned sheep was seemingly healthy but died later, the reason of her death remains unknown.
In other cases, many animal clones mysteriously die very young or before birth, making it very complex to understand the aging process in cloned organisms. This is an indicator of underlying internal issues in the functioning of cloned animals despite their normal physical appearances. Cloning negatively impacts on some of the human values especially individuality raising fundamental questions about the very nature of humans. The possibility of a different approach to reproduction could lead to more harm to humans in many aspects.
This is manifested in the numerous questions that emerge from reproductive technology related to moral concerns on family, society, and sexuality. Cloning, therefore, becomes a violation of the fundamental basis of the human existence and can lead to the loss of genetic variation as well as compromise individuality.
Additionally, clones are likely to be viewed as second-class humans among other unidentified psychosocial damages with far reaching impacts on the society and family.
Cloning Should Be Banned
Therefore, advocates of cloning fail to understand how cloning can revolutionize the nature of humans individuality and the dangers and risks that are associated with cloning despite the scientific benefits. It is also worth noting that there is no chance to weigh the potential risks in advance for human clones and therefore, the risks would be part of existence.
The uncertainties, failures, and dangers in experiments reflect and determine the destiny of the clones. December 5, Richard Seed announced that he intended to clone a human before federal laws could effectively prohibit the process. January 20, The Food and Drug Administration announced that it had authority over human cloning. July Ryuzo Yanagimachi, Toni Perry, and Teruhiko Wakayama announced that they had cloned 50 mice from adult cells since October, January Botechnology firm Perkin-Elmer Corporation announced that it wold work with gene sequencing expert J.
Craig Venture to privately map the human genome. Should be interesting enough, right? So in there was actually a major advancement in the field of genealogy which took us a step closer towards human cloning. The genome of homosapiens stored in 23 chromosome pairs, was launched — 30 years after the successful deciphering of the DNA code which was done in It came as a major boost for the much-aspired practice of human cloning. In , Clonaid — a human cloning company founded in , revealed that it had sucessfully cloned humans, and made public a picture of a baby which was allegedly the first clone human, named Eve.
The company followed up with more of such revelations, but it was difficult to assess the credibility of these claimsas they refused to undergo a DNA test of the mother and child. More of such claims also surfaced, though none were credible enough. Human Cloning Prohibition Act.
Just when things were falling in place and we were close to the development of a human clone, a major setback came in the form of the Human Cloning Prohibition Act of , which deemed cloning unlawful, unethical and an immoral activity. The opposition to cloning of humans came from scientific community, which was not satisfied with the results of animal cloning, and the religious communities, which believe that the cloning of humans is an activity which interferes with human life and procreation.
Due to the much-debated ethical issues of cloning, both reproductive cloning and therapeutic cloning are opposed, and even banned in some countries, today. The fraternity of pro-cloning scientists and researchers though, are hoping that human cloning will be legalized some time soon — after which they can get back to their labs, and continue experiments related to the same.
Though the death of various cloned animals has questioned the practice of cloning time and again, each of these experiments has put humans one step towards the seemingly impossible goal of successfully cloning its own kind. A somatic cell is any cell of the body other than a germ sex cell. An example of a somatic cell would be a blood cell, heart cell, skin cell, etc.
In this process, the nucleus of a somatic cell is removed and inserted into an unfertilized egg that has had its nucleus removed. The egg with its donated nucleus is then nurtured and divides until it becomes an embryo. The embryo is then placed inside a surrogate mother and develops inside the surrogate. The Roslin Technique is a variation of somatic cell nuclear transfer that was developed by researchers at the Roslin Institute. The researchers used this method to create Dolly.
In this process, somatic cells with nuclei in tact are allowed to grow and divide and are then deprived of nutrients to induce the cells into a suspended or dormant stage. An egg cell that has had its nucleus removed is then placed in close proximity to a somatic cell and both cells are shocked with an electrical pulse. The cells fuse and the egg is allow to develop into an embryo. The embryo is then implanted into a surrogate.
The Honolulu Technique was developed by Dr. Teruhiko Wakayama at the University of Hawaii. In this method, the nucleus from a somatic cell is removed and injected into an egg that has had its nucleus removed. The egg is bathed in a chemical solution and cultured.
The developing embryo is then implanted into a surrogate and allowed to develop. I hope this has been informative enough to shed some light as to how cloning was little by little, brought into the mainstream of scientific breakthroughs. Moving on to the next part, I will now discussed the problems associated with human cloning. Statement of the Problem:. We, as people have different cultures and traditions and these factors greatly influence the advancement of cloning in a far deeper sense.
The question is, what exactly are the risks of cloning? Reproductive cloning is expensive and highly inefficient. More than nuclear transfer procedures could be required to produce one viable clone. In addition to low success rates, cloned animals tend to have more compromised immune function and higher rates of infection, tumor growth, and other disorders.
Japanese studies have shown that cloned mice live in poor health and die early. About a third of the cloned calves born alive have died young, and many of them were abnormally large. Many cloned animals have not lived long enough to generate good data about how clones age. Appearing healthy at a young age unfortunately is not a good indicator of long-term survival. Clones have been known to die mysteriously. In , researchers at the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research in Cambridge, Massachusetts, reported that the genomes of cloned mice are compromised.
The abnormalities do not arise from mutations in the genes but from changes in the normal activation or expression of certain genes. Problems also may result from programming errors in the genetic material from a donor cell. When an embryo is created from the union of a sperm and an egg, the embryo receives copies of most genes from both parents.
Defects in the genetic imprint of DNA from a single donor cell may lead to some of the developmental abnormalities of cloned embryos.vernsonvarepac.ml
Part Two: The Case Against Cloning-to-Produce-Children - The New Atlantis
From these information, it gives us the impression that cloning is too risky and many people believe that it is quite impossible to clone a human being when the results of the trial conducted are not very compelling and satisfactory. In fact, in some cases, the thought of cloning a human instills fear on most religious people because of their belief of the Divine and the laws in conjunction with their beliefs.
Another question arises, thus creating more conflict and even bigger arguments about the process. Should humans be cloned? Physicians from the American Medical Association and scientists with the American Association for the Advancement of Science have issued formal public statements advising against human reproductive cloning. The U. Congress has considered the passage of legislation that could ban human cloning. Due to the inefficiency of animal cloning only about 1 or 2 viable offspring for every experiments and the lack of understanding about reproductive cloning, many scientists and physicians strongly believe that it would be unethical to attempt to clone humans.
Several cloned animals have died prematurely from infections and other complications. The same problems would be expected in human cloning.
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In addition, scientists do not know how cloning could impact mental development. While factors such as intellect and mood may not be as important for a cow or a mouse, they are crucial for the development of healthy humans. With so many unknowns concerning reproductive cloning, the attempt to clone humans at this time is considered potentially dangerous and ethically irresponsible.
Against Animal Cloning
The problems are quite disturbing and it require lots of critical thinking, analysis, arguments, debates, etc. Causes and Effects:. At first, I had problems analyzing what may be the real cause s of the problems about the cloning process, and what are the implications of human cloning failures. So by gathering more significant information and resources, I was able to cite several causes as well as the effects of the problems I stated in a broad concept. All the talk in recent years about the possibility of cloning human beings has everyone a little unsettled.